Item #8375 [Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]. Lieut. Charles A. H. McCauley, ” “Sam “Billy, ”, ” “Chauvet Fils or Young Savano, ” “Stowt Wass, ” “Wass, artists Prof. William F. Flint.
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]
[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]

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McCauley, Lieut. Charles A. H.; “Billy,” “Sam,” “Wass,” “Stowt Wass,” “Chauvet Fils or Young Savano,” and Prof. William F. Flint, artists.

[Archive of drawings depicting Colorado and New Mexico subjects, including a striking series by Ute artists with whom McCauley was acquainted.]

Colorado and New Mexico, primarily 1875–1878, 1894.

An extensive and captivating archive of more than 135 drawings compiled by an artist-officer in the U.S. army serving at various locales in the American West in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. These drawings relate to McCauley’s time in Colorado and New Mexico, including, most significantly, a fascinating series of pictographic drawings executed by Ute artists at the second Los Pinos Agency in southwestern Colorado.

On the whole, this archive offers a rich representation of McCauley’s experience in the West and is particularly notable for its documentation of Ute artistic expression during a tragic phase of the tribe’s history. McCauley’s detailed inscriptions and incorporation of drawings by indigenous artists into his own sketchbook distinguishes these works from the typical volumes of ledger drawings created by Native Americans of the plains, revealing apparently close and sympathetic relationships with several Tabeguache Utes and an artist’s appreciation of their works, many, if not all, of which appear to have been done at his request.

The various bands of the Ute people, who traditionally inhabited lands in what would become the states of Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico, were for many years relatively unaffected by European colonization and American expansion. The discovery of gold in Colorado in 1858–59, however, brought dramatic change to the Ute way of life. The Colorado Gold Rush and the subsequent silver boom resulted in miners occupying and exploiting lands well within Ute territory, provoking conflict and leading to various treaties and the creation of reservations by which the Federal government sought to control the indigenous people of western Colorado. The Treaty of 1863, primarily negotiated between a federal commission and Tabeguache Ute leaders, sought to confine the Utes to lands west of the central Rockies. However, the U.S. government failed to provide rations promised under the treaty, and the Utes continued to occupy their traditional territory. 

The abiding tensions between settlers and the native people led to the Treaty of 1868, under which a reservation for all Ute tribes was established on the western slope of the Rockies. Two agencies were also created, one on the White River to serve the northern Utes and another for both the southern and the Tabeguache Utes—the largest of the Ute tribes—supposed to be located on the Los Pinos River but instead located on a branch of Cochetopa Creek, east of the reservation. The branch was renamed Los Pinos Creek to bring its name in line with the agency location specified in the treaty. 

In 1873, ongoing settlement pressure and yet another forced agreement, known as the Bruno Treaty or San Juan Cession, resulted in the removal of 4,000,000 acres in the San Juan Mountains from the Ute Reservation. The subsequent flood of miners into the region eventually impinged on the Los Pinos Agency, and the threat of conflict led to the removal in 1875 of the Utes and the Agency to a location in the heart of the reservation in the Uncompahgre Valley, near present day Colona, Colorado.

The compiler of the present archive, Lieutenant Charles McCauley, arrived in Colorado around the time of the establishment of the second Los Pinos Agency. However, as noted in a family biographical sketch included here, he was on sick leave “in Colorado, New Mexico, and Old Mexico” from 1875 to 1876, and was not posted to the Los Pinos Agency until 1878. During his time at Los Pinos, McCauley compiled a remarkable sketchbook—the most salient component of this archive—entitled “Sketches by Lieut. McCauley 3d Artillery, Asst. Engineer Officer, Dept. Missouri Fort Leavenworth, Kansas With the Ute Indian Commission to the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah in 1878,” which includes eighteen of his own sketches but mainly consists of thirty-one mounted drawings by five Ute artists (four men and one woman) at Los Pinos.

These works, stylistically akin to the better-known ledger drawings executed by members of various plains tribes, belong to the Native American tradition of petroglyphs and pictographs, first executed on rock faces, later on buffalo hides, and finally on ledger sheets and other paper provided by American soldiers and others. Interestingly, while related to ledger drawings, these Ute works are distinguished by evidence of close interaction with the artists and an admiration for their work infrequently found in the genre. This stems from McCauley’s inclusion of the drawings in his own sketchbook and his engaged inscriptions, which invariably identify the artist (albeit frequently with an assigned Anglo name) and often provide details on the social attachments, standing, and the artist's experience or the subject depicted. 

The subjects represented in the thirty-one Ute drawings include portraits of chiefs, women, and other Ute figures, battle scenes, hunting scenes, horses, deer, portraits of soldiers, and tipis. These bear such captions as:

• “Hunting on the Plains—Billy slays a huge buffalo…Drawn on the spot by Himself” 

• “Colorado Chiquito or ‘Little Colorado’. A Ute Chief drawn by ‘Billy’ a big Chief & promising artist of the Tabequache Bands of Ute Indians” 

• “‘Old Colorow’ or Colorado grande as depicted by ‘Sam,’ a Rising Artist and Brave of the Tabequaches”

• “Billy in His ‘Store Clothes’ drawn by Himself” 

• “Wass’ Favorite Squaw as drawn by Her Old Man. ‘Stowt’ née Shavano, the Belle of the Tribe - The Bridal Tow an Elopement” 

• “Fearful Fight between ‘Billy’ of the Tabequache Utes and his mortal foe in the Arapahoes, resulting in the death of the latter - drawn by the hero” 

• “Lightning Sketch of 3d Artillery Fellow with the Blue Shirt by ‘Sam’ Artist of the Tabequache” 

• “Wass’ Tepee drawn by Stowt His favorite Squaw” 

• “Chauvet fils alias Young Shavano surnamed ‘Harry’ The Dandy of the Tabequache Utes,” and others.

McCauley’s own drawings in the sketchbook include topographical views, portraits, humorous scenes, etc. Among these are:

• “Residence of Ouray Head Chief of the Tabequache 9 miles north of Los Pinos Agency” 

• “The Belle of the Pack Train” (a mule)

• “Descent of the Rocky Mountain Bandits into Flinch Gulch” 

• “Madam Tom The Squaw of a Well-Known Brave” 

• “Sketch of the Old Saw Mill & the City thereof 2 miles up the Uncompahgre River”

• “‘Johnson’ The Artemus Ward of the Tabequache Chiefs,” and so on.

The extensively captioned drawings in this sketchbook, which capture both McCauley’s experience and the spirit of the Ute people he encountered, constitute one of the few surviving primary source documents of life at and around the Los Pinos Agency. The apparently friendly relationships McCauley enjoyed with the Ute artists whose drawings he collected belies the larger story of the relentless pressure exerted by the settlers and the army, which would drive the Ute people completely out of most of their traditional homeland in Colorado within a few years.

Earlier Colorado Sketches

Two groups of sketches dated 1875—the earliest dated drawings present—seem to confirm that McCauley was not on active duty at the time. One of these groups, titled “Rambles in Colorado. Middle Park and Elsewhere” is a series of five drawings recording a recreational outing. Of these, three are humorous depictions of McCauley’s party ascending and descending a mountain in a covered wagon; one shows a woman fording a river on horseback and is titled “To her comrade who smileth. Not Much”; and another is a sympathetic portrait of an African American woman named “Aunt Ginny,” who served as “Cook of the Marshall Middle Park Party” at a rate of $3.00 per day. 

The other group is a sketchbook titled “No. 8 1875 Colorado.” Many of these are portraits, some identified and others not, of various people in McCauley’s midst and offer an intimate glimpse of “society” in the American West. Those identified are “Gansen the ‘boss’ Trout Fisherman of Hot Sulphur Springs”; “Britton A. Hill St Louis” (a noted St. Louis author); “Me and my Pet” (a McCauley self portrait with cat on shoulder); and “Lord Leigh Unfinished Sketch.” The subject of the latter is Gilbert H. C. Leigh, a British Liberal Party politician and sportsman who traveled to the American West for hunting expeditions and was accidentally killed during one such outing in Wyoming in 1884. A series of nine drawings captioned “Ye grand Hunt of My Lord - Oct 10th - 75” satirizes one of Leigh’s hunts, in which McCauley apparently participated. Other non-portrait drawings in the 1875 sketchbook include “My Lodge,” “Green Lake—The Cottage,” “Pan Her Out” (a miner panning gold); “Bound for Bear River Oct. 3-75” (a loaded pack mule); “Enjoying Middle Park Sunday Oct. 10 1875” (lounging figure of a man with his hat pulled over his face); and “Puss on the Warpath - Chipmunks for supper?”

New Mexico Sketches

Twenty-four McCauley drawings on loose sheets, some of them dated 1876 and the others evidently done around the same time, mainly relate to his time in New Mexico. These are almost entirely portraits of men of Anglo, Spanish and Native American extraction. Among the drawings captioned are “‘Hick’ Kolhouse”; “Albuquerque - 4-10-76” (a bedraggled, bearded figure with long shawl or blanket and cane); “All done three times & sold” (an auctioneer); “The Little Teamster”; “Our Wagonmaster”; “Hat for sale” (a man wearing a sombrero shown from behind), and others. Two additional sketches show a stucco church and a typical New Mexico donkey cart. Also belonging to this phase of McCauley’s time in the west is an unusually large, relatively early, and comprehensive watercolor view of Taos Pueblo captioned “Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico north line of New Mexico 60 miles north of Santa Fe.” We find just one drawing of the Taos Pueblo in OCLC that pre-dates this watercolor.

Born in Middletown, Maryland, Charles Adam Hoke McCauley (1847–1913) was the son of Reverend Charles F. McCauley of Reading, Pennsylvania and Maria McCauley, née Hoke. A graduate of Reading High School (1865), he worked in the engineering department of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad from 1865 to 1866, then entered West Point in 1866, graduating in 1870. He was appointed second lieutenant of the 3d Artillery the same year, was transferred to the 2d Cavalry in 1878, and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1879. 

Soon after leaving West Point he undertook the study of ornithology. Much of McCauley’s military career was spent in the American West. He served in part as the ornithologist for the Survey of the Red River in Texas (1876), publishing a report; led the San Juan Reconnaissance in Southwest Colorado and New Mexico in 1877; and served with the Ute Indian Commission in Colorado and Utah in 1878. McCauley was posted to Fort Steele, Wyoming from 1879 to 1882, and managed the supply depot at Rawlins, Wyoming Territory. At Portland, Oregon during the 1890s he served as Purchasing and Disbursing Quartermaster, and spent time in Alaska. 

Prior to the Spanish-American War, McCauley was in Philadelphia and in 1901 he was assigned to the Philippines as Chief Quartermaster, Department South Luzon. He returned to the United States in 1903, spending six more years in the army, then retired with the rank of Colonel in 1909. Among his various publications are “Notes on the Ornithology of the Region About the Source of the Red River of Texas” (1877), “The San Juan Reconnaissance in Colorado and New Mexico” (1877), “Reports on the White River Indian Agency, Colorado, and the Uinta Indian Agency” (1879), and “Pagasa Springs, Colorado: It’s Geology and Botany” (1879). McCauley is also said to have devised the U.S. military’s mirror signaling system.

Several wood engravings after drawings by McCauley of subjects connected with “The Late Ute Outbreak and Massacre at the White River Agency” in Colorado appeared in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, December 6, 1879.

The archive includes a carte-de-visite photograph of McCauley in uniform, taken in the 1870s and inscribed by him on the verso.

Archive contents

McCauley, Lieut. Charles A. H.; “Billy,” “Sam,” “Wass,” “Stowt Wass,” “Chauvet Fils or Young Savano,” and Prof. William F. Flint, artists. [Drawings by both McCauley and various Ute artists] Sketches by Lieut. McCauley 3d Artillery, Asst. Engineer Officer, Dept. Missouri Fort Leavenworth, Kansas With the Ute Indian Commission to the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah in 1878[manuscript title on front paste-down]. Oblong 32mo (5” x 7.5”), original full calf, manuscript title in ink on front cover. 51 graphite drawings on 51 leaves, 22 uncolored and 29 partially in color pencil. 31 drawings by Ute artists (29 with color elements, 2 without), 19 drawings by McCauley (1 double-page), 1 drawing by Prof. William F. Flint, “late of Dartmouth College.” Most on separate sheets mounted on leaves, others integral. One leaf lacking a drawing that was once there.

[with]

McCauley, Lieut. Charles A. H. Rambles in Colorado. Middle Park and Elsewhere. 1875. Loose set of five drawings with manuscript title leaf in ink, 1 drawing in graphite with title in ink, 4 pen & inks, all on sheets measuring approx. 5.75” x 5.5”. Set is partial with numbers 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 present.

[with]

McCauley, Lieut. Charles A. H. No. 8 1875 Colorado [Sketchbook of Colorado subjects, including numerous portraits]. Likely various Colorado locales, 1875. Sketchbook with stiff rear cover, 5.75” x 3.5”. 58 graphite sketches on 40 leaves, one leaf laid in, 2 pp. of pencil notes, additional notes on rear paste-down. Lacking most of the first two leaves.

[with]

McCauley, Lieut. Charles A. H. [Loose sketches of New Mexico subjects.] Some dated 1876. 24 graphite sketches on 23 sheets, 16 on sheets ranging from 4” x 3.25” to approx. 5” x 3.5” and 11 on sheets from 5.75” x 4.25” to 6.25” x 4”. 

[with]

McCauley, Lieut. Charles A. H., artist, attrib. Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico Near north Line of New Mexico 60 Miles north of Santa Fe. Circa 1878. Graphite and colored pencil on wove paper, 26.5” x 10”.

[with]

Carte-de-visite portrait of McCauley. Albumen print of paperboard mount. Inscribed by McCauley in ink on the verso.

[with]

Miscellaneous papers, including: Set of six drawings by McCauley executed in Alaska, mainly depicting various totem poles, Alaska, 1894, 3 in graphite and brown wash, 3 in graphite only, all on sheets measuring approx. 10” x 6.75”, one signed, titled, and dated in ink, 4 with pencil titles or captions; manuscript biographical note on McCauley, 1.5 pp.; McCauley family genealogical typescript, 5 pp. (lacking p. 1 of 6); non-western sketch book with 19 humorous pen and ink sketches; envelope from “Colonel C. A. H. McCauley” in Denver addressed to “Miss Katherine L. McCauley” in Bryn Mawr, Pa. with comical ink and wash sketch on the front panel depicting a German-speaking tuba player; glossary of twelve words or phrases, English to unidentified Native American language. 1 p., in pencil; full length stick figure like portrait of “Capt. MCauley” drawn by a Ute artist. Blue pencil, 8.5” x 5.5” (tattered edges, bit of loss to inscription); loose sheet with 1 p. pencil note reading “Rough Sketches in the field—Various trips—Travelling with Lord Leigh, an English Nobleman as his guest in 1877 &c &c in Rocky Mts, Colorado” (this does not seem to correspond precisely with any of the sketches present here).

A compelling archive documenting a U.S. Army officer’s experiences serving in the American West, in particular his close connection with the Ute people at the Los Pinos Agency.

REFERENCES: “Los Pinos Indian Agency” at Colorado Encyclopedia online; National Park Service. Frontier in Transition: A History of Southwestern Colorado. CHAPTER V: “The Utes in Southwestern Colorado: A Confrontation of Cultures” at National Park Service online.

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Item #8375

On Hold

Price: $45,000.00